Location: Halley stands on the Brunt ice shelf. This flows off the Antarctic continent into the Weddell Sea at a rate of 2m per day, breaking off at the edge to form giant icebergs.
Information: Temperatures rarely get above freezing in Summer and fall to -50 C in winter when there is 24 hour darkness for three months. For about 9 months of the year the 30 or so residents are completely isolated from the outside world by the surrounding sea ice and impossible flying conditions. Only a nearby colony of emperor penguins keeps them company.
History: Halley base was established in 1956 as part of the UK’s contribution to the International Geophysical Year. Scientific research has continued uninterrupted ever since. From 1962 this has been run by the British Antarctic Survey.
Science: It was here in 1985 that British scientists first measured the ozone depletion of the Antarctic stratosphere. Their discovery that this critical protection from ultraviolet radiation had been decreasing from 1975-1985 made headlines around the world and spurred the international agreement on banning chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
Measurements are taken of the ice of Antarctica beneath, of the air in the troposphere above, of the ozone in the stratosphere above that, and of the plasma in the geospace beyond them all.
Website: Halley Station
Wildlife: Elephant Seals, Fur Seals, Royal Penguins, King Penguins, Gentoo Penguins, Rockhopper Penguins, Albatross, Misc. Flight Birds